A Culture of Student Engagement Through Schoolwide Restorative Practices – Podcast Episode 210
Classnotes Podcast (April 26, 2021). Often, people talk about restorative practice as an approach to student discipline. It is true that restorative practices include a reactive component designed to restore relationships by repairing harm. But that is not the best place to start implementing restorative practices in a school.
In this episode, Dr. Paula Johnson, director, IDRA EAC-South, and Terrence Wilson, J.D., IDRA regional policy and community engagement director, describe how restorative practice is proactive in developing community by building relationships and positive school climates that value all students. They describe a range of ways educators can start using restorative practices to create an environment where students want to engage.
Connecting with Students in the Virtual Biology Classroom – Podcast Episode 209
Classnotes Podcast (April 6, 2021). At the core of IDRA’s philosophy is the recognition that each student is a unique and whole human being and should be treated as such. Our guest for this episode is Annabel Saenz Cruz who teaches ninth-grade biology at Palmview High School in La Joya ISD.
She joins Classnotes to discuss the most valuable tool in keeping students engaged in participation and learning: establishing personal connection with them as unique human beings. She also discusses practical strategies in teaching difficult concepts through virtual learning, especially with English learners, as well as the necessity of technological literacy. Annabel was interviewed by Aurelio Montemayor, M.Ed., Family Engagement Coordinator.
Bridging Academic and Home Knowledge with Home Works Lessons – Podcast Episode 206
Classnotes Podcast (October 28, 2020). COVID-19 has forced a re-imagining of instruction to promote learning and engagement in virtual lessons. Dr. Martina McGhee saw this as an opportunity to help elementary students extend their academic learning with their everyday lives at home.
In this episode, Dr. Stephanie Garcia, IDRA STEM and gender equity education specialist, talks with Auburn University’s clinical professor, Dr. Martina McGhee, about her new project entitled, Home Works. In response to COVID-19 and the increased need for quality distance learning resources, Dr. McGhee and her undergraduate students created meaningful learning experiences for elementary students. Listen to this episode to learn more about the Home Works learning model and how to leverage their free resources for educators and families.Listen podcast
Strategies for Engaging Students in Today’s Virtual and Hybrid Classrooms
By Stephanie García, Ph.D. • IDRA Newsletter • March 2021
During the COVID-19 pandemic, education experts, companies and individuals created and shared a plethora of online resources educators and students alike. For good measure, educators and researchers are now evaluating the usefulness of such resources and their impact on student outcomes.
Student engagement has a positive relationship with student outcomes (Aguilar, et al., 2020). It is important then to better understand the learners’ experience to improve instruction and maximize student achievement. This is especially true for both the traditional and digital settings during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Digital Divide Directly Impacted Student-School Engagement During COVID-19
By Christina Muñoz • IDRA Newsletter • March 2021
Students with limited access to the basic resources necessary to thrive in a digital learning landscape, such as broadband connectivity and/or technological devices, are among those who are at highest risk of missing out on classroom instruction during the pandemic. Students of color are significantly less likely to have access to broadband or Internet-connected devices compared to their white peers (TSTA, 2020).
Student engagement, which is students’ intellectual, social and emotional connection to school, is foundational to learning. Reports at the end of spring 2020 showed that almost 89% of students were fully engaged at the time of COVID-19 school closures and the end of the school year.
Teaching High Level Math through Distance Learning – Podcast Episode 208
Classnotes Podcast (February 8, 2021). Math is proving to be the subject that is experiencing the greatest distance learning challenges for students at all age levels. Numerous studies are showing the effects of the disruptions of COVID-19 on student learning leading to students being significantly behind in math. No doubt, schools will adjust to help students get back on track. But what about students who are close to graduating and those taking higher-level math courses?
We welcome on our podcast high school educator, Jennifer Schulze-Aguirre, M.A., who teaches Algebra 1 through AP Calculus BC at Brandeis High School in Northside ISD. She has a master’s degree in curriculum and instruction with a math emphasis and has been teaching teenagers for 14 years. In this episode, she discusses the challenges that are unique to math through distance learning. And she describes the creative ways she is addressing them and how she will transfer those strategies to her classroom after the pandemic. Jennifer is interviewed by Aurelio Montemayor, M.Ed., Family Engagement Coordinator, and Christie Goodman, APR, IDRA director of communication.Listen podcast
Teachers Share Best Practices for Virtual Instruction in the Age of COVID-19
By Aurelio M. Montemayor, M.Ed. • IDRA Newsletter • February 2021
History will show that today’s teachers are doing monumental work. After suddenly shifting from in-person to all-remote instruction, many now are balancing the two. They constantly adjust assignments, tests and special needs accommodations while exploring different ways to keep students engaged.
Who better can attest to their ingenuity than students themselves? I asked some students for recommendations and interviewed four remarkable teachers. I spoke with them to see how they combine instruction of challenging content with creative use of applications to engage the students.
How a Rural School District Makes its All-Students Attitude Real – Podcast Episode 207
Classnotes Podcast (November 16, 2020). IDRA’s change model, the Quality Schools Action Framework, helps people focus on what’s needed in their local school context to truly ensure access to high quality education for all students. As the need for universal college and career preparation continues to grow, we can see how the framework comes alive in how school districts structure themselves to meet this need.
In this episode, Hector Bojorquez, IDRA director of operations and educational practice, talks with Andy Wilson, provost of Roscoe Collegiate ISD in Texas, about how the district has been innovating for a decade to meet its goal of having all students be career- and college-ready. Andy outlines the district’s blended model of early college high school and STEM academy, its schoolwide AVID program, its partnerships with colleges in the area, and its teacher support systems to identify and support students in all grades when they are struggling.
Andy states: “Nobody gets a pass on college classes, nobody gets a pass on STEM classes and credentialing… We just feel like attaining that level of education, bachelor’s degree being the baseline, will set our students up for success in their future. We have a high majority of low socioeconomic and first-generation college-goers, and so we’re really looking at changing lives and really stopping generational poverty.”Listen podcast
Meaningful Strategies for Making STEM Accessible
by Stephanie García, Ph.D., and Asmaa Mansour • IDRA Newsletter • October 2020
STEM is the foundation of innovation and discovery. It balances the technical with the creative to transform how we live and imagine our future.
But when it comes to providing access to STEM education, we still have a problem. Many inequities exist, including the underrepresentation of women and people of color in STEM pathways. According to the National Science Foundation (2017), there is a severe underrepresentation of students of color graduating with science and engineering degrees. Women earned only 22% of bachelor’s degrees in engineering and only 25% of bachelor’s degrees in mathematics and computer sciences in 2017.
Resources for Supporting LGBTQ Students
The resource list below is from the article, “Making Schools Safe Learning Havens for LGBTQ Students,” by Stephanie Garcia, Ph.D., & Aurelio M. Montemayor, M.Ed.
Safe Place to Learn, resource package, National Center on Safe Supportive Learning Environments
5 Things to Know about LGBTQ Youth, Child Trends
The Basics: Understanding LGBTQ+ Youth, Side-by-Side
Student Tasks: Do Something, lessons for K-12 students, Teaching Tolerance
3 Ways to Make Schools Safe for LGBTQ Students, IDRA Classnotes Podcast Episode #189
Equity and Justice for LGBTQ Students – Teacher Responsibilities, IDRA Newsletter
Conduct Your Own Local School Climate Survey, Gay, Lesbian & Straight Education Network
We Create Hope Within Our Communities – Before and During COVID-19, Texas Chief Science Officers Advocate for STEM
by Elizabeth Alexander, Shreya Chaudhary & Isela Herrera • IDRA Newsletter • June-July 2020
The Chief Science Officers (CSO) program emphasizes student voice across the globe for STEM engagement. CSO students create action plans that encourage STEM throughout their community. These action plans enable students to further their STEM education, bring awareness of future career paths, and advocate for STEM. Alongside the action plan process, CSO students network with many different corporations to further advance our future endeavors in STEM fields.Watch webinar recording: Student Perspectives on a Changing School Climate
How Equity Audits Reveal Harmful Education Policies – Podcast Episode 202
Classnotes Podcast (June 23, 2020). Equity audits are powerful tools to help school districts identify root causes of inequities that impact student success. These audits typically involve analyzing data in three key areas: programmatic equity, teaching quality equity, and achievement equity.
In this episode, Dr. Paula Johnson and Morgan Craven, J.D., talk about how IDRA EAC-South’s equity audits – or equity walks, as we call them – help districts and communities identify the greatest area of need & how to improve. They give examples of how educational policies impact equity, including school funding policies, policies that hinder teacher diversity, and policies that limit student access to higher-level courses.Listen podcast
STEM Students Describe Life in a COVID-19 World – Podcast Episode 201
Classnotes Podcast (May 27, 2020). Those most impacted by the sudden shift to distance learning clearly are the students themselves. In this podcast episode, we brought together students to share how they have been navigating the new challenges brought on by COVID-19 and distance learning. Ana Ramón talks with three Chief Science Officer students as they describe how they have stayed connected and keep innovating during this time. Our special guest students are: CSO Isela, 12th Grade, McCollum High School, Harlandale ISD; CSO Shreya, 10th Grade, Keystone School; and CSO Elizabeth, 8th Grade, Northeast ISD STEM Academy (Nimitz MS).
Students in IDRA’s Texas Chief Science Officer program are in grades 6-12 elected by their peers to be liaisons for STEM in their schools and communities. They learn leadership skills to implement on-campus projects and advocate for student voice in STEM. See our Texas Chief Science Officer webpage for details. These youth STEM ambassadors have not stopped their work to enrich a STEM culture despite their school and community closures.Listen podcast
Article: Habits of a Healthy School District Where All Students Thrive
Health is on everyone’s mind today. COVID-19 has impacted our daily lives, our work, our recreation, our plans for the coming months. Health is a state of physical, mental and social well-being, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
When applied to education, the same is true. School district health, for example, means more than grades or test scores. It means all students thrive. Educators, families and communities care for each other to ensure the educational well-being of students.See article
Article: Using Equity Audits to Assess and Address Opportunity Gaps Across Education
By Paula N. Johnson, Ph.D. • IDRA Newsletter • April 2020
Education leaders today are able to compile all kinds of student achievement data. However, many do not intentionally look for signs of systemic inequity. To recognize root causes of inequities, educators and communities can use equity audits to examine their school’s culture, trends, practices and policies. These audits are especially needed now as inequities are exacerbated by COVID-19 school closures. Uncovering opportunity gaps is the first step in developing a plan to address them.
This article discusses the purpose, measures and outcomes of an equity audit. It showcases examples of how the information from an audit can assist schools and districts in addressing inequity.See article
Article: Racial and Gender Disparities in Dress Code Discipline Point to Need for New Approaches in Schools
By Chloe Latham Sikes, M.A. • IDRA Newsletter • February 2020
Recently, two Black high school students in Barbers Hill Independent School District in Texas were disciplined for violating the district dress code by wearing their hair in dreadlocks (per their families’ cultural custom). As in this case, while supposedly established to minimize disruption in the classroom, dress code policies and their disciplinary consequences can actually disrupt the learning opportunities and school environment for students, and can be discriminatory against students’ gender, religious and cultural expression (NWLC, 2018; Sherwin, 2017), with a disproportionately harmful impact on students of color and girls.See article
Article: How Schools Can End Harmful Discipline Practices
Positive cultures of teaching and learning support students’ attendance, academic achievement, engagement and positive self-concept. These cultures depend on effective discipline, which addresses challenging and unsafe behaviors constructively.
Unfortunately, data show the prevalent overuse of ineffective exclusionary discipline measures, such as suspensions and alternative school placements, in schools across the country. Students of color, students with disabilities, and LGBTQ students are more likely to be punished, even though they are not more likely to misbehave (Rumberger & Losen, 2016).See article
New Infographic: School Climate Affects LGBTQ Student Well-being
See highlights from the 2017 National School Climate Survey by GLSEN and a presentation by Side by Side (2019). This infographic accompanies “Making Schools Safe Learning Havens for LGBTQ Students,” by Stephanie Garcia, Ph.D., & Aurelio M. Montemayor, M.Ed.
See the printable flyer of this infographic.
Meet the Chief Science Officer Students Who Brought the Program to Texas – Podcast Episode 199
Classnotes Podcast (November 26, 2019). While the Chief Science Officers program is designed to support new student leadership for STEM, the main reason it expanded to Texas was the leadership of two students, Kelly and Lexis. First launched in 2015 by Arizona-based SciTech Institute to elevate the voices of students in STEM, the program now exists in the United States and in other countries from Kuwait to Mexico. After the program came to San Antonio in 2018 with support from the Alamo STEM Ecosystem, a member of the International STEM Learning Ecosystem, IDRA operates the program as it grows across Texas.
In this episode, Dr. Stephanie Garcia, talks with Kelly and Lexis about their experience as CSOs and the importance of mentorship and sense of community among students. Stephanie is IDRA’s STEM and gender equity education specialist and directs IDRA’s CSO program.Listen podcast
Article: Strategies for Increasing Girls’ Participation in STEM
Underrepresentation of young women in STEM education negatively affects their future career paths and results in countless missed opportunities for achievement and discovery in those fields. The implications are even larger for girls of color and for those who are economically disadvantaged. These disparities exist due to wide gaps in science, technology, engineering and mathematics representation and access.See article
Article: Making Schools Safe Learning Havens for LGBTQ Students
LGBTQ students face attacks and discrimination daily in our schools. A student says to another, “That’s so gay!” An adult tells a student that being gay is a sin. A coach chides a male student-athlete, “You throw like a girl!”
Statements like these are distressing and harmful. In the United States, 60% of students feel unsafe at school because of their sexual orientation (Kosciw, et al., 2018).
Over time, educators have become more sensitive to gender and gender identity issues, yet many challenges remain. Boys perceived as unmanly and effeminate are bullied, harassed or assaulted by their peers. Girls who identify as “butch” are sometimes ridiculed by peers and counseled by adults to look more “normal.” A gay boy “comes out” to a counselor and pleads that he not tell his parents. Same-sex couples cause a scandal when choosing to attend their prom. Some quote their religious faith to defend discrimination and abuse of LGBTQ students.See article
Article: Discipline Strategies to Combat Faulty Assumptions that Target Black Male Youth
by Daryl V. Williams, Ed.D., October 2019
No student group is more or less likely to misbehave. But Black male students are punished more often and more severely in our nation’s schools. While only representing 8% of public school students, Black males account for 25% of students receiving out-of-school suspensions and 23% of students expelled
The use of exclusionary discipline like out-of-school suspension and expulsion results in reduced instruction time and negatively impacts students’ academic performance, including entry into the school-to-prison pipeline.
Alterative, non-exclusionary discipline strategies have better results for students and the school community. Strategies include incorporating restorative justice programs, improving the school climate, ensuring there are enough mental health professionals and counselors for students, expanding family and community engagement, and reviewing academic and instructional practices.
Article: Strategies for Increasing Girls’ Participation in STEM
by Paula Johnson, Ph.D., & Michelle Vega, October 2019
The education environment girls experience shapes their interest and achievement in STEM. Stereotypes, gender bias, and the climate of science and engineering courses act as barriers to girls’ progress in STEM coursework.
This article offers numerous strategies for promoting STEM equity in the classroom. They range from providing female role models and mentors to having hands-on tools and opportunities to explore the many different STEM career pathways available to students in the future.
Article: Building a STEM Identity through the Chief Science Officer Program
by Lexis Ratto & Kelly O’Kane • IDRA Newsletter • August 2019
Editor’s Note: High school students Lexis Ratto and Kelly O’Kane were instrumental in bringing the international Chief Science Officer (CSO) program to San Antonio through the Alamo STEM Ecosystem. IDRA now manages the program in Texas as it grows across the state.
Research says many students don’t stay in STEM because they don’t identify with STEM degrees and careers. But it is important that students see themselves in these careers or at minimum have direct access to high-quality STEM opportunities, if they decide to participate.See article
Article: Five Best Practices that Add Women to the Equation – Preparing K-12 Girls for Mathematics
by Stephanie Garcia, Ph.D., & Kasia Razynska, May 2019
Though there have been strides made in the past 20 years involving young women in math, there are still enduring gender gaps. This article reviews current trends in the data and best practices for increasing girls’ performance and persistence in math from K-12.
Recommendations include removing harmful stereotypes, training teachers to provide constructive, meaningful feedback to allow students to revise their work, exposing girls to female role models with careers in mathematics, fostering girls’ own identities as young mathematicians, and connecting mathematics skills to real-world applications.
Promoting sex and gender equity can ensure equal access to rigorous coursework leading to a healthier school climate and high-quality teaching.See article
Three Strategies for Engaging Girls in Math – Classnotes Podcast Episode 194
Over the last two decades, we’ve seen great improvements in engaging girls in math. They are as likely as males to calculus AB, statistics and chemistry. But they are less likely to take higher-level math courses and in college are much less likely to enroll in STEM fields.
In this episode, Dr. Stephanie Garcia and Kasia Razynska share three strategies for increasing girls’ performance and persistence through K-12 math. Stephanie is an IDRA education associate and Kasia Razynska is associate director of evaluation and continuous improvement for the Mid-Atlantic Equity Consortium.
Show length: 11:11 minGet details and listen
eBook: Girls and STEM Education – Research Overview and Resources
IDRA developed this eBook is to explore the intersection between science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields, particularly computer science, and girls. Historically, women and other minority students have been largely absent from STEM fields and classes (Girl Scout Research Institute, 2012; Anderson, 2018). This eBook covers statistics for girls and minority students in STEM, the growing technology-dependent labor market, current initiatives and organizations encouraging STEM, literature on how to support these promising students, and resources.See eBook
3 Ways to Make Schools Safe for LGBTQ Students – Podcast Episode 189
Classnotes Podcast (January 15, 2019). Most parents and caregivers would agree that all students should be provided with the same opportunity to learn, grow and succeed at school. As adults and leaders in our communities, we can work together with our classroom teachers and school administrators to ensure our students can learn free from fear and are protected from discrimination, harassment and bullying. LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer or questioning) students face particular challenges in our classrooms 85% report facing verbal harassment, more than one in four are physically harassed at school, and half are threatened by their classmates.
Michelle Martínez Vega, IDRA technology coordinator, and Aurelio M. Montemayor, M.Ed., director of IDRA’s Texas Education CAFE Network project , discuss how parents can work with their schools to support LGBTQ students and their safety along the way.
Show length: 12:11 min.Get info and listen
IDRA submitted comments in response to the U.S. Department of Education’s proposed changes to Title IX federal policy that was created in 1972 to ensure non-discrimination of students based on gender.Comments
Resources on Preventing and Responding to Cyberbullying in Schools
As the use of social media and cell phones continues to expand and connect students more readily in important ways, so too does the rising threat of cyberbullying. Whether it concerns students “trolling” other students on Twitter because of their perceived gender, sending continuous text messages harassing a student because of their race, or posting repeated disparaging pictures implicating a student’s religion or immigration status on Instagram, cyberbullying comes in many forms.See Resource List
Teacher Responsibilities in Supporting LGBTQ Students – Podcast Episode 184
Classnotes Podcast (August 16, 2018). Schools must be safe places for all children. LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer or questioning) students face particular challenges in our classrooms 85 percent report facing verbal harassment, more than one in four are physically harassed at school, and half are threatened by their classmates. Michelle Martínez Vega, IDRA technology coordinator, and Aurelio M. Montemayor, M.Ed., director of IDRA’s Texas Education CAFE Network project funded by the W.K. Kellogg Foundation, discuss how teachers are pivotal to supporting the intelligence and uniqueness of each student while clearly blocking and deterring harm. They outline specific classroom actions and resources for educators. The IDRA EAC-South provides technical assistance and training to build capacity of local educators to serve their diverse student populations.
Show length: 12:23 min.Get info and listen
Article: Three Approaches for Dismantling Discriminatory Discipline in Schools
by Paula N. Johnson, Ph.D., & José A. Velázquez, M.Ed., March 2019
In recent years, schools across the nation have moved toward resolving behavior issues that do not take the child out of the classroom – focusing on a “whole child” approach to student learning and success built on relationships and community.
The IDRA EAC- South has a three-pronged approach to addressing disparities in school discipline. First, technical assistance builds capacity to increase positive school climates through research-based services; second, revising discriminatory school discipline practices better aligns schools with the district’s tiers of support for behavior; and third, building capacity for effective family and parent engagement to improve relationships between all stakeholders.
As a result, districts we’ve worked with across the IDRA EAC- South region report lower rates of suspension and expulsion each year.See article
Article: Red Flags Wave in Proposed Changes to Title IX – Gender Equity in Schools Needs Diligence not Relaxation
by Aurelio M. Montemayor, M.Ed., February 2019
Several decades after Brown vs. Board of Education made segregation and institutionalized racism illegal, the Title IX amendment to federal education policy in 1972 began to throw a comparable light on gender and sexual identification injustices in our schools. Currently, the U.S. Department of Education has proposed changes to the rules for how schools handle sexual assault allegations.
IDRA does not support any proposed rules that reduce protection of students vulnerable to physical and sexual abuse and increase the freedom of abusers. During the public comment period, IDRA submitted a list of concerns based on our 45 years of working with educators, parents and children in underserved communities across the nation. This article concludes with recommendations for creating safe environments for all students.See article
Article: Institutionalized Discrimination… Does it Exist in Your School
by David Hinojosa, J.D., April 2018
This article addresses how schools can identify institutionalized discrimination – discriminatory practices that manifest through behaviors, actions and policies of public institutions that target or exclude based on race, sex, gender, national origin, religion and disability, among others. This kind of discrimination can be difficult to stop because it often has a basis in patterns and practices from historical norms. David Hinojosa pinpoints three critical areas – expectations, school funding and curriculum – as starting points for schools to identify and correct their own discriminatory policies and practices.See article
Classnotes Podcast Episode: STEAM Education for Every Child Part 1 –#152
Despite efforts across the nation over the last decade to increase STEM education for girls and minority students, the data show we’re not succeeding. Reports last year revealed that, in two states, not even one female student took the AP computer science test, for example. In 11 states, there were no African American students who took the test, and no Hispanic students took it in eight states. One initiative that is showing promise is to move from STEM to STEAM by integrating the arts into STEM work.Get details and listen
Math educator, Paula Martin Johnson, M.A., an IDRA education associate discusses how STEAM strategies combine a content standard and an art standard, side-by-side. This gives students an opportunity to analyze and express the content learning, while drawing on their experience, making the abstract STEM concept concreate and real.
Paula is interviewed by Aurelio M. Montemayor, M.Ed., IDRA senior education associate. Send comments to firstname.lastname@example.org. Sign up to receive free e-mail notices when new episodes are available. Show length: 14:20.
Listen now: STEAM Education for Every Child Part 1 – #152
Article: Addressing “Ecological Shock” – Supporting Refugee Students in School
by Kristin Grayson, Ph.D., and Hannah Sung, March 2018
Dr. Kristin Grayson and Hanna Sung address in this article how schools can support refugee students through building connections and fostering understanding. Educators and school stakeholders must understand the effects of trauma and the unique aspects that refugee students bring to the classroom.
Schools can pro-actively create a welcoming and positive learning environment to help these students cope with stress and fear by fostering community – bringing students in fully as members of their schools rather than isolating them. Building this positive learning environment requires a commitment to equity.See article
Article: Sexual Harassment – Safe Learning Environments for All Students
by Michelle Martínez Vega, February 2018
This article provides information for educators to combat sexual harassment and identify and support students who have been harassed or abused. The United States is in the mist of a pivotal moment where survivors of sexual harassment and assault are coming forward in staggering numbers, and this heightened attention to prevent and address harassment extends to our schools.
The American Association of University Women (AAUW) commissioned research using a nationally representative sample of 2,064 public schools and found that eight in 10 students in grades eight through 11 experienced some form of sexual harassment at some time during their educational career. Practical solutions include knowing the signs that a student has been abused, acting when a student has been bullied, and following Title IX guidelines to prevent sex and gender-based harassment.See article
Article: Equity and Justice for LGBTQ Students – Teacher Responsibilities
by Aurelio M. Montemayor, M.Ed., and Michelle Martínez Vega, February 2018
This article provides information on teacher responsibilities for helping LGBTQ students feel comfortable and protected in school. Even though there have been genuine strides made by the LGBTQ community, there is plenty of work to be done. Hate-related violence against LGBTQ individuals resulting in death jumped a staggering 86 percent in 2017 over the previous year in the United States.
Teachers are pivotal not only in supporting students but also for creating equitable classroom settings where all students can feel safe while learning. IDRA’S EAC-South provides technical assistance and training for gender equity in schools, including protections and support for LGBTQ students.See article
Article: Stem Pathways for Girls of Color – A Review of the Literature
by Paula Johnson, M.A., February 2016
Although women make up nearly half of the nation’s total labor community, they represent just over a quarter of the STEM workforce. Most research focused on increasing the number of minority women in STEM analyzes the impact of non-school-based summer programs on middle school girls’ perceptions and attitudes toward STEM.Read article
Paula Johnson, M.A., explores the research literature to highlight trends and identify areas needing further investigation.
Read article: Stem Pathways for Girls of Color: A Review of the Literature, by Paula Johnson, M.A., IDRA Newsletter, February 2016